Since the 1960s, Christian leaders have found their voice in the political sphere. Siding almost exclusively with the Republican Party, the religious right became a powerful force in America during the 1980s and 1990s. They pursued conservative values such as pro-life policies, prayer in school, and traditional marriage.
But after generations of Evangelical Christians moving further towards the right, many found that their partisan politics were pushing people away. Now, a new generation of young leaders are calling for change and more moderation. They hope to redefine what it means to be a political Christian without the stereotypes of the religious right.
Brandan Robertson is founder of The Revangelical Movement, an organization that promotes an alternative Evangelical perspective. He joins The Takeaway with Krista Tippett, host of On Being, a public radio program that explores religion and spirituality in our daily life, to discuss the changing face of Christian politics.
Robertson, who has no relation to the religious broadcaster Pat Robertson, says that the modern religious right movement among Evangelicals started around 50 years ago with the goal of attaining political power in the United States. However, he says that nowadays young Evangelical leaders are calling for a new, more moderate approach because many feel that the current movement is "inconsistent with Jesus."
"Millennial Evangelicals aren't simply switching from conservative to liberal," he says. "What's actually going on is we're re-examining the words of Jesus, we're re-examining the principals that we claim to live our lives by from a religious perspective, and that's causing us to change our views on things like poverty and immigration reform. We're even looking at things like marriage equality—we might have a traditional Evangelical theology of homosexuality, but we look at that and see that it has no contradiction with the political position that the LGBTQ community has the right to get married."
Robertson adds that while the fundamentalist, right wing Evangelical perspective may not be the path forward for millennial Evangelicals, the liberal perspective is not a total fit either, leading many to seek a new middle ground.
"Our theology may remain the same, but the politics need to match the theology and that's not what the religious right, the Democrats or the Republicans are standing for," he says. "We want to stand for the common good of all people."
But is Robertson's position really representative of a larger movement, or is he an outlier? Is there a real push to rebrand the Evangelical movement in America right now?
"I'd like to be a little bit provocative and pull the lens back farther—I actually think the moral majority was the outlier," says On Being's Krista Tippett. "The people who we have come to identify as Evangelicals now are the same group who in the early 20th century withdrew from politics, withdrew from public life and said this is the age of world war and global economic depression. They said, 'We're going to focus on inner life and we're going to focus on personal salvation.'"
Tippett says that in the late 20th century there was a strident reaction against seclusion, leading to a reemergence of Evangelicals into the public sphere, something that she says people like Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell came to encapsulate. While that stance has made headlines over the last 20 years, Tippett says that these parties were never meant to represent all Evangelicals.
She says that the national news media has played a large role in forming the belief that all Evangelicals held the same ideals. Tippett says that during the early days of the modern movement, journalists started reporting that 40 percent of Americans identified as Evangelical Christians, and lumped them all together into a large box.
"Forty percent of the American people is and has always been a very diverse group of voices," says Tippett. "I think that what Brandan represents is the untold story that started to happen immediately after the turn of the century and through the Bush Administration. Evangelicals themselves and not just millennials [started] rebelling against being represented by Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson in the public sphere. They've been looking back at their core values—all of those stereotypes and those boxes about who Evangelicals are and what they believe was a very short lived thing and never was the whole story."
When looking back in history, one can also see that Evangelicals were central to many political movements that might normally be considered "liberal." Tippett points out that the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls was held at a Methodist church, and that Christians were a large part of the fight against U.S. slavery. But why have these details seemingly been forgotten from the movement?
Tippett emphasized that media attention has focused on people like Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell, which has skewed public perception of Evangelicals and hasn't given enough of a voice to other leaders like theologian and social activist Ron Sider or Jim Wallis of the Sojourners community. She said there were a number of "stunning things happening in the National Association of Evangelicals during the George W. Bush Administration," like refocusing the Evangelical agenda on global poverty, and introducing discussions about climate change and the natural world.
"It's been a more complex picture that just wasn't covered," she says. "I think Brandan and these next generation Evangelicals are really gaining a public voice and expressing something. It's still complicated—the stereotypes don't fit that Evangelicals fall on one side of the spectrum. It didn't fit when the Seneca Falls meeting, which was a core moment in what we would later call women's liberation, happened in a holiness church. It didn't fit in the early 20th century when we started to think that Evangelicals are people who are primarily against abortion and against gay rights. Now the picture is more complicated too."
Tippett says the statistics on young Evangelicals support the complex nature of this group and at times paint a picture that is politically confusing. She says the data shows that this group of young people are less in favor of abortion, far more in favor of LGBT issues and gay marriage than their parents' generation, and even partner with liberals on issues like immigration, climate change and global poverty.
"These young Evangelicals will say that abortion is something they theologically oppose, but they're trying to find, as they would say, faithful ways to take that up as an issue," says Tippett. "Even if they hold that position, which looks like a Republican position, they may not be finding it a useful way to spend their energy working on the legality of abortion."
Tippett says instead of pursuing legal challenges to abortion, many Evangelicals are fighting abortion by refocusing their efforts on helping people avoid pregnancy.
"Again, even when the values look Republican or Democrat, it may be an ecclesiastical response rather than a political response, and that's a big shift," she adds.
Want to hear more about the changing role of religion in America? Check out our series "Young Nation Under God?"