Before the Arab Spring, presidencies were firmly fixed in the Middle East, marked by extended periods of rule and monarchical styles of control.
But a wave of demonstrations, first in Tunisia and Egypt and later elsewhere throughout the Middle East, disrupted the old regimes.
Now Egypt is once more left to reckon with a deposed ruler and an unsettled populace, and a shocking onslaught of violence has left scores dead and many more wounded.
President Obama spoke to reporters yesterday about the White House’s response to the bloodshed in Egypt.
“We want Egypt to succeed," he said. "We want a peaceful, democratic, prosperous Egypt. That's our interest. But to achieve that, the Egyptians are going to have to do the work."
Now Egyptians and the rest of the world are left to wonder if and how the nation can emerge from this struggle and who will be responsible for the country’s future.
Hugh Roberts is an Edward Keller professor of North African and Middle Eastern history at Tufts University, and the former director of the International Crisis Group’s North Africa Project. He joins us to discuss whether the country can recover from this level of conflict.